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Siegel der Universität
Department für Chemie - Arbeitsgruppe Prof. Strey

Mikroemulsionen mit ionischen Tensiden als alternative Kraftstoffe

Klaus Rottländer, 2007

Water being dispersed in fossil fuels like Diesel or biogenous fuels like vegetable oil or biodiesel is known to reduce the pollutant emission of engines dramatically. State-of-the-art are fuel emulsions. The production of emulsions is energy consuming and cost-intensive. Due to coagulation, Oswald ripening and sedimentation emulsions phase separate after a certain period of time. However, long-term stability, cost-effectiveness and temperature insensitivity are preconditions for a successful application of water-based fuels. Microemulsions per se fulfill these preconditions and furthermore allow the solubilization of arbitrary amounts of water. Temperature insensitive and efficient systems of type water/additive - fuel ? surfactant have been formulated using fatty acids and their salts as efficient and cost-effective surfactants. Due to the interpenetration of water- and oil-domains on nanometer scale, bicontinuous microemulsions ensure the optimal dispersion of water and fuel compared to conventional water-fuel mixtures having a positive influence on the combustion. Measurements at an engine test-bench revealed that soot emissions was found to be reduced by up to 97% and NOx emission by up to 80% at combustion efficiency increases of up to 7 %. In the context of this work the phase behavior of single-chain ionic surfactants of type fatty acid salt and alkyl ammonium salt was characterized. For the first time microemulsions of type water/salt ? oil ? anionic and/or cationic surfactant have been formulated without cosurfactant.